# Exploring the Impact of Gender on Mood States and Perceived Stress: A MANOVA Analysis

September 22, 2023
James Ingram
🇺🇸 United States
Statistical Analysis
James Ingram is a seasoned statistician with 10+ years of expertise, specializing in statistical analysis. Holding a master's degree in statistics from Saint Leo University, he assists students in completing assignments with precision and excellence.
Key Topics
• Problem Description:
• Results:
• Results:
• Summary:

In this comprehensive analysis, we delve into the intriguing relationship between gender, mood states, and perceived stress. Through the power of Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA), we dissect the data to uncover hidden insights. Our findings reveal whether there are significant disparities between males and females in terms of their emotional well-being and stress levels. This examination not only sheds light on gender differences but also offers a deeper understanding of the intricate interplay of psychological factors. Join us on this statistical journey to unveil the secrets behind mood and stress perception by gender.

## Problem Description:

This Statistics assignment embarks on a fascinating journey to investigate the role of gender in shaping individuals' mood states and their levels of perceived stress. By employing Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA), we aim to discern if there exist noteworthy distinctions between males and females concerning their emotional well-being and stress perception. This exploration goes beyond statistics, providing valuable insights into the complex dynamics of gender-related psychological factors.

Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) on Mood States and Perceived Stress

## Results:

1. Total Positive Affect:No significant effect of sex was observed (F(1, 430) = .008, p = .927, partial η2 = .000).
2. Total Negative Affect:While approaching significance, there was no statistically significant effect of sex (F(1, 430) = 3.456, p = .064, partial η2 = .008).
3. Total Perceived Stress: A significant effect of sex was found (F(1, 430) = 8.342, p = .004, partial η2 = .019).

The model explained less than 1% of the variance in total positive affect (Adjusted R2 = -.002), 0.6% of the variance in total negative affect (Adjusted R2 = .006), and 1.7% of the variance in total perceived stress (Adjusted R2 = .017).

Conclusion:While sex did not significantly influence total positive or negative affect, it did have a significant impact on levels of perceived stress.

Assignment 2: Investigating the Stereotype: Weight Concerns, Gender, and Education

In this assignment, we delved into the age-old stereotype that women are more concerned about their weight compared to men. We also explored the role of education in shaping these concerns. Logistic regression was employed to examine the factors of gender (with men coded as 0 and women as 1) and the number of years spent in education. Furthermore, we investigated how these two factors interacted with each other.

## Results:

• Gender and Weight Concerns:
• Women were, intriguingly, found to be less anxious about their weight compared to men. The difference was statistically significant (B = -1.893, S.E. = .514, p < .001), with an odds ratio of .151.

• Education and Weight Concerns:
• For each additional year of education, the likelihood of being concerned about weight slightly increased (B = .098, S.E. = .027, p < .001), with an odds ratio of 1.103.

• Interaction of Gender and Education:
• An important revelation emerged when we explored the interaction between gender and education. The stats indicated a significant interaction (B = -.093, S.E. = .034, p = .007) with an odds ratio of .911. This implies that as individuals pursue more education, the gap in weight concerns between men and women narrows.

## Summary:

In summary, while women initially appear to be less concerned about their weight than men, as their level of education increases, this gap diminishes. Therefore, the common stereotype does not hold, especially when considering the educational factor.

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