Using SPSS for Survey Data Analysis

SPSS is a statistical program used to explore and analyze raw data to extract actionable insights from it. It provides a friendly user interface that enables businesses and researchers to understand data better and solve complex business and research problems with advanced mathematical formulas and procedures. SPSS is easy to use by information scientists of all skill levels, which makes it one of the most popular programs in data analysis today.

Scale Types and Data Analyses Using SPSS

39 people or 21.3% of respondents ranked Arby’s as the most desirable place to eat.
Rank Arby's


FrequencyPercentValid PercentCumulative Percent
Valid      least desirable 
              4th most desirable 
              3rd most desirable 
              2nd most desirable 
              Most Desirable 
              Total 
Missing  System 
Total 
38 
21 
36 
49 
39 
183 
184 
20.7 
11.4 
19.6 
26.6 
21.2 
99.5 
.5 
100.0 
20.8 
11.5 
19.7 
26.8 
21.3
100.0 

20.8 
32.2 
51.9 
78.7 
100.0 



62 people or 33.9% of respondents rated Burger King as the most desirable.
Rank Burger King


 FrequencyPercentValid Percent  Cumulative Percent
Valid        least desirable
               4th most desirable
               3rd most desirable
               2nd most desirable
               Most Desirable
               Total
Missing   System
Total
24 
42 
14 
41 
62 
183 
184 
13.0 
22.8 
7.6 
22.3 
33.7 
99.5 
.5 
100.0 
13.1 
23.0 
7.7 
22.4 
33.9 
100.0 

13.1 
36.1 
43.7 
66.1 
100.0 


Burger King was rated the most desirable by most people. Wendy’s was rated the least desirable by most people.
Rank McDonald's


FrequencyPercentValid PercentCumulative Percent
Valid        least desirable 
               4th most desirable 
               3rd most desirable 
               2nd most desirable 
               Most Desirable 
               Total 
Missing   System 
Total 
40
42
44
34
23
183
1
184
21.7
22.8
23.9
18.5
12.5
99.5
.5
100.0
21.9
23.0
24.0
18.6
12.6
100.0
21.9
44.8
68.9
87.4
100.0
Rank Sonic

 FrequencyPercentValid PercentCumulative Percent
Valid        least desirable
               4th most desirable
               3rd most desirable
               2nd most desirable
               Most Desirable
               Total
Missing   System
Total

38
32
48
24
41
183
1
184
20.7
17.4
26.1
13.0
22.3
99.5
.5
100.0
20.8
17.5
26.2
13.1
22.4
100.0
20.8
38.3
64.5
77.6
100.0
Rank Wendy's
 Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid least desirable 42 22.8 23.0 23.0
 4th most desirable 47 25.5 25.7 48.6
 3rd most desirable 39 21.2 21.3 69.9
 2nd most desirable 37 20.1 20.2 90.2
 Most Desirable 18 9.8 9.8 100.0
 Total 183 99.5 100.0
Missing System 1 .5
Total 184 100.0
The average frequency of eating out was 3.0007 times a week.
Descriptive Statistics
Descriptive Statistics
 N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation
How often do you eat out? 184 .00 10.00 3.0007 1.72520
Valid N (listwise) 184
Descriptive Statistics
 N Min Max Mean Std. Deviation
Prefer fast food rather than eat at home 182 1 5 2.76 1.327
Eat fast food because no time to cook 182 1 5 3.70 1.190
Fast food is cheap 183 1 5 3.15 1.305
Advertising influences decision 183 1 5 2.50 1.190
Price is important 182 1 5 3.53 1.264
Location is important 183 1 5 3.64 1.094
Cleanliness is important 183 1 5 4.06 .872
Food Quality is important 183 1 5 3.83 1.007
Service is important 183 1 5 3.81 .882
Menu variety is important 182 1 5 3.34 1.143
Valid N (listwise) 179
Cleanliness has the highest agreement, with a mean of 4.06, while preferring fast food rather than eat at home had the lowest mean, at 2.76.
Cleanliness has the least variability of responses, at 0.872, while preferring fast food rather than eat at home has the highest variability at 1.327
Descriptive Statistics
 N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation
Eat at Arby's 184 .00 75.00 17.8533 16.84501
Eat at Burger King 184 .00 75.00 18.8967 16.04213
Eat at McDonald's 183 .00 80.00 14.1803 14.74640
Eat at Sonic 184 .00 60.00 15.5870 15.24492
Eat at Wendy's 184 .00 60.00 13.6685 12.86729
Eat at Other Fast food locations 184 .00 100.00 19.0217 16.00442
Valid N (listwise) 183
Burger King has the highest for Q5 and is equal to 18.8967%.
Descriptive Statistics
 N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation
Customer service at Arby's 176 -3.00 3.00 .9545 1.55955
Customer service at Burger King 183 -3.00 3.00 1.2022 1.52546
Customer service at McDonald's 182 -3.00 3.00 .8022 1.70290
Customer service at Sonic 181 -3.00 3.00 .5414 1.67488
Customer service at Wendy's 180 -3.00 3.00 .7667 1.62419
Valid N (listwise) 171
Burger King has the highest average customer service, which is equal to 1.2022, while Sonic has the least average customer service. The largest variability in the rating of customer service was observed for McDonald’s, equal to 1.70290, while Burger King has the least variability in customer service rating, at 1.52546.
Question 1 records the number of times the respondent eats out at a fast-food restaurant and Question 2 has the data about money spent at fast-food restaurants, as a percentage of total money spent at restaurants.
Group Statistics
 Gender N Mean Std. Deviation Std. Error Mean
How often do you eat out? Female 84 2.6349 1.40537 .15334
 Male 98 3.3398 1.91299 .19324
Percent of dining out dollars spent at fast foods Female 84 45.57 23.186 2.530
 Male 98 49.41 22.912 2.314
The female respondents in the sample reported eating out an average of 2.6349 times a week, with a sample standard deviation of 1.40537, while the male respondents ate out more, averaging 3.3398 times a week, with a sample standard deviation of 1.91299.
Coming to the percent of dining out dollars spent on fast food, the female respondents spent 45.57% of their dining-out dollars on fast food options, with a sample standard deviation of 23.186 percent, while the male respondents spent 49.41% on fast food options, with a smaller standard deviation of 22.912%
We want to further investigate whether the gender of the respondent plays a role in the frequency of eating out or the percentage of dining dollars spent on fast foods, we run an independent samples t-test to determine that.
Independent Test
 Levene's Test t-test for Equality of Means
 F Sig. t df Sig. (2-tailed) Mean Difference Std. Error Difference 95% CI of the Difference
        Lower Upper
How often do you eat out? Equal variances assumed 3.988 .047 -2.792 180 .006 -.70491 .25246 -1.20307 -.20676
 Equal variances not assumed -2.858 176.043 .005 -.70491 .24669 -1.19176 -.21807
Percent of dining out dollars spent at fast foods Equal variances assumed .061 .805 -1.120 180 .264 -3.837 3.426 -10.596 2.923
 Equal variances not assumed -1.119 175.117 .265 -3.837 3.429 -10.604 2.930
The independent samples t-test conducted to test whether gender impacts the frequency of eating out, yields a test statistic of -2.792, df = 180, p-value = 0.006 < 0.05. At a 5% significance level, we reject the hypothesis that the frequency of eating out is the same for both genders. Men eat out more frequently than women
The independent samples t-test conducted to test whether gender impacts the percent of dining out dollars spent at fast-food restaurants, yields a test statistic of -1.120, df = 180, p-value = 0.264 > 0.05. At the 5% significance level, we fail to reject the hypothesis that the average percent of dining out dollars spent at fast-food restaurants is the same for both genders.
In this question, we test whether age played a role in the frequency of eating out and the percent of dining out dollars spent at fast-food restaurants
Descriptives
 N Mean Std. Deviation Std. Error 95% CI for Mean Min Max
     Lower Bound Upper Bound
How often do you eat out? Under 20 31 3.3387 2.13849 .38408 2.5543 4.1231 .50 10.00
 20-29 49 2.5408 1.34178 .19168 2.1554 2.9262 .00 7.00
 30-39 38 3.0263 1.19655 .19411 2.6330 3.4196 .50 6.00
 40-49 31 3.2742 1.25724 .22581 2.8130 3.7354 .50 6.00
 50+ 33 3.0797 2.51377 .43759 2.1884 3.9710 .00 10.00
 Total 182 3.0007 1.73152 .12835 2.7475 3.2540 .00 10.00
Percent of dining out dollars spent at fast foods Under 20 31 61.29 16.430 2.951 55.26 67.32 25 90
 20-29 49 37.41 20.088 2.870 31.64 43.18 0 80
 30-39 38 42.39 16.320 2.648 37.03 47.76 10 80
 40-49 31 54.26 19.042 3.420 47.27 61.24 10 80
 50+ 33 49.21 32.653 5.684 37.63 60.79 0 100
 Total 182 47.53 22.995 1.705 44.16 50.89 0 100
The frequency of eating out was lowest for those in the age group 20-29 at 2.5408 and the highest for those below the age of 20 years, at 3.3387 times a week.
Comparing the percent of dining out dollars spent at fast foods, the highest percentage is for those under 20 years of age, at 61.29%, and the lowest for those in the age group 20-29.
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Analysis of Variance
 Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig.
How often do you eat out? Between Groups 16.455 4 4.114 1.384 .241
 Within Groups 526.214 177 2.973
 Total 542.669 181
Percent of dining out dollars spent at fast foods Between Groups 13388.609 4 3347.152 7.197 .000
 Within Groups 82320.753 177 465.089
 Total 95709.363 181
The ANOVA was conducted to determine whether age played a role in the frequency of eating out, and the percent of dining out dollars spent at fast foods. For frequency of eating out, the test statistic, F(4, 177) = 1.384, p-value = 0.241 > 0.05. Therefore, at a 5% significance level, we fail to reject the null hypothesis that age doesn’t impact the frequency of eating out.
For percent of dining out dollars spent at fast foods, the test statistic, F(4, 177) = 7.197, p-value < 0.001 < 0.05. Therefore, at a 5% significance level, we reject the null hypothesis that age doesn’t impact the frequency of eating out.
Means plot of the average frequency of eating out for different age groups.
Means plot of average percent of dining out dollars spent on fast foods for different age groups.
Q12)
Comparing the percent of dining out dollars spent at fast foods, the highest percentage is for those under 20 years of age, and the lowest for those in the age group 20-29.
Descriptives
 N Mean Std. Deviation Std. Error 95% CI for Mean Min Max
     Lower Bound Upper Bound
How often do you eat out? $0-24,999 41 2.8659 1.41873 .22157 2.4180 3.3137 .50 7.00
 $25,000-49,999 39 3.4487 2.27340 .36404 2.7118 4.1857 1.00 10.00
 $50,000-74,999 44 3.1023 1.60152 .24144 2.6154 3.5892 .00 7.00
 $75,000+ 58 2.7522 1.57201 .20641 2.3389 3.1656 .00 8.00
 Total 182 3.0117 1.72829 .12811 2.7589 3.2645 .00 10.00
Percent of dining out dollars spent at fast foods $0-24,999 41 51.46 17.792 2.779 45.85 57.08 20 80
 $25,000-49,999 39 54.64 26.514 4.246 46.05 63.24 10 100
 $50,000-74,999 44 44.45 23.563 3.552 37.29 51.62 0 90
 $75,000+ 58 42.47 22.360 2.936 36.59 48.34 0 80
 Total 182 47.58 23.061 1.709 44.21 50.96 0 100
The mean and standard deviation of the frequency of eating out and percent of dining out dollars spent on fast food for each income group is shown in the table above. The income group $25,000 - $49,999 has the highest frequency of eating out and the highest percent of dining out dollars spent at fast-food restaurants.
We use the ANOVA to figure out if income has an impact on the frequency of eating out and percent of dining out dollars spent on fast food for each income group.
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