Sociology: How Bullying in Schools Affects Students and Parents

Bulling in schools can affect everything about a student from how they see themselves to interacting with others to being confident in their future. Those who are bullied often experience low self-esteem, depression, loneliness, shyness, illness, or even attempted self-harm. Some of these students drop out of school and see their grades deteriorate because they have been bullied. Parents whose children have been bullied also face a difficult time addressing the subject effectively and may sometimes have trouble interacting with their kids. Nevertheless, bullying has to be addressed altogether, as it is the only way to make schools safe for everyone.

Descriptive Statistics


Variables in the Equation
  B S.E. Wald df Sig. Exp(B)
Step 1a age2     12.227 2 .002  
age2(1) .501 .251 4.002 1 .045 1.651
age2(2) .306 .247 1.539 1 .215 1.359
race3     94.622 2 .000  
race3(1) -.434 .083 27.275 1 .000 .648
race3(2) .508 .071 50.535 1 .000 1.662
sex(1) .447 .054 67.688 1 .000 1.564
Constant -.153 .246 .386 1 .534 .858
a. Variable(s) entered on step 1: age2, race3, sex.
The table above presents the logistic regression result of parents worrying against bullying of their children against demographics variables (age, sex, and race). The result shows that females have higher odds of worrying than males against bullying of their children. Female have 1.564 times odds of male and is significant (p<0.0001). Overall sex significantly affects parents worrying against bullying of their children (p<0.001). Black non-Hispanic has lower odds of worrying than White non-Hispanic against bullying of their children. Black non-Hispanic have 35.2% lower odds than Whites non-Hispanic and is significant (p<0.0001). Hispanic has higher odds of worrying than White non-Hispanic against bullying of their children. Hispanic have 1.662 times odds of Whites non-Hispanic and are significant (p<0.0001). Overall race significantly affects parents worrying against bullying of their children (p<0.001). Parents between ages 18-34 have higher odds of worrying than parents that are 65 years and above against bullying of their children. Parents between ages 18-34 have 1.651 times the odds of parents that are 65 years and above and is significant (p=0.045). However, there is no significant difference in odds of worrying against bullying between Parents between aged 35-64 parents that are 65 years and above (p=0.045). Overall age significantly affects parents worrying against bullying of their children (p=0.002). Contact our experts for quality descriptive statistics assignment help.

Analysis of Variance

Variables in the Equation
  B S.E. Wald df Sig. Exp(B)
Step 1a age2     1.279 2 .528  
age2(1) .665 .612 1.182 1 .277 1.945
age2(2) .590 .602 .961 1 .327 1.805
race3     13.779 2 .001  
race3(1) -.363 .234 2.402 1 .121 .695
race3(2) .584 .184 10.058 1 .002 1.794
sex(1) .666 .146 20.865 1 .000 1.946
q4     4.736 3 .192  
q4(1) -.085 .281 .091 1 .763 .919
q4(2) .129 .284 .206 1 .650 1.138
q4(3) .252 .296 .728 1 .394 1.287
qe3     2.213 2 .331  
qe3(1) .221 .179 1.526 1 .217 1.248
qe3(2) -.015 .225 .004 1 .948 .986
qe5     1.432 2 .489  
qe5(1) -.118 .168 .494 1 .482 .889
qe5(2) .095 .219 .187 1 .665 1.099
Constant -.620 .655 .895 1 .344 .538
a. Variable(s) entered on step 1: age2, race3, sex, q4, qe3, qe5.
The table above is the result of model 2 which is a modification of model 1 by adding socio-economic characteristics (household’s financial situation, employment status, and partner’s employment status). Adding these variables did not change the results in model 1 significantly with the significance and sign maintained except for age which becomes insignificant overall (p=0.528) and the age groups do not significantly differ in worrying about bullying. For the socioeconomic variables, the household’s financial situation does not have a significant effect on parents worrying about the bullying of their children (p=0.192). There is no significant difference in worrying about bullying of their children between parents that live comfortably and those that Don't even have enough to meet basic expenses (p=0.763), between parents that meet basic expenses with a little leftover for extras and those that Don't even have enough to meet basic expenses (p=0.650) and between parents that just meet basic expenses and those that Don't even have enough to meet basic expenses (p=0.394). Similarly, parents' current employment status has no significant effect on worrying against bullying of their children (p=0.192), and partners' current employment status has no significant effect on worrying against bullying of their children (p=0.489). For reliable assistance with this topic, contact us for ANOVA assignment help.

Socio-Economic characteristics

Variables in the Equation
  B S.E. Wald df Sig. Exp(B)
Step 1a age2     .196 2 .907  
age2(1) .090 1.445 .004 1 .951 1.094
age2(2) .233 1.419 .027 1 .870 1.262
race3     .109 2 .947  
race3(1) -.154 .500 .095 1 .758 .857
race3(2) -.055 .350 .025 1 .875 .946
sex(1) .374 .271 1.914 1 .167 1.454
q4     6.176 3 .103  
q4(1) .485 .569 .726 1 .394 1.624
q4(2) .957 .567 2.847 1 .092 2.605
q4(3) .302 .588 .264 1 .607 1.353
qe3     .077 2 .962  
qe3(1) .054 .321 .029 1 .866 1.056
qe3(2) .110 .401 .076 1 .783 1.117
qe5     6.840 2 .033  
qe5(1) -.824 .334 6.073 1 .014 .439
qe5(2) -.276 .424 .424 1 .515 .759
q54a(1) .790 .236 11.257 1 .001 2.204
q54g(1) 1.046 .226 21.451 1 .000 2.846
q65c(1) .463 .242 3.669 1 .055 1.589
q94a(1) .934 .322 8.395 1 .004 2.544
q1 .384 .204 3.542 1 .060 1.468
q7 .053 .116 .210 1 .647 1.055
q31     .860 2 .650  
q31(1) -.294 .428 .471 1 .493 .745
q31(2) .227 .405 .315 1 .575 1.255
q41c(1) -.256 .340 .567 1 .451 .774
q54b(1) 1.402 .260 29.132 1 .000 4.063
Constant -2.773 1.675 2.741 1 .098 .063
a. Variable(s) entered on step 1: age2, race3, sex, q4, qe3, qe5, q54a, q54g, q65c, q94a, q1, q7, q31, q41c, q54b.

In addition to the Demographics and Socio-Economic characteristics, ten other important variables (neighborhood, child care arrangement, overall satisfaction with life, talk to a teacher about the child, overprotective or not, depression/anxiety, problem with drugs/alcohol, child’s supervision, worrying about beating up of children) were added to the model and the result is presented above. The inclusion of these variables alters the result in model 1 significantly. Age (p=0.907), race(p=0.947) and sex (p=0.167) all becomes insignificant. All socio-economic status maintains their insignificance except spouse employment status which becomes significant (p=0.033). Parents whose spouse is fully employed have lower odds of worrying than parents whose spouse is unemployed by 56.1% and is significant (p=0.014) while there is no significant difference in worrying between whose spouse is employed on a part-time basis and parents whose spouse is unemployed. For the new variables, a parent who worried their children might have problem with drugs or alcohol have significantly higher odds (OR=2.204, p<0.0001) of worrying about bullying than parents who are not worried their children might have problem with drugs or alcohol. Similarly, a parent who worried their children might have problem with anxiety/depression has significantly higher odds (OR=2.2846, p<0.0001) of worrying about bullying than parents who are not worried their children might have problem with anxiety/depression and parents who worried their children might be beaten up have significantly higher odds (OR=4.06, p<0.0001) of worrying about bullying than parents who are not worried their children might beat up. There is no significant difference between worrying about bullying for overprotective parents and parents that give much freedom (p=0.055). Parents that have talked to a teacher about their child have significantly higher odds (OR=2.544, p=0.004) of worrying than parents that have not talked to a teacher about their child. Overall life satisfaction (p=0.06), neighborhood rating (p=0.647), parents pressure on children to do well in school (p=0.65), children’s supervision by an adult (p=0.451) all have an insignificant effect on parent’s worrying about bullying their children.