Research paper

The format of a research paper is provided here. This blog on the research paper aims to analyze the effectiveness of various sleep protocols in helping patients improve their sleep. A clear structure is followed here, which can be beneficial to any student with problems on research paper assignments.

Aims of the research paper

This research paper analyses the effectiveness of sleep protocols used to control night-time noise and helps patients sleep easier by improved sleep in intensive care units (ICU). It measures three factors that are likely to affect a person's sleep: noise perceived, interruptions of sleep through ICU care activities, and actual noise in the room.

Lit Review of Paper

The article states the ICU patients have poor sleep quality, which affects their cognitive abilities, emotions, and other body functions, which elevate the patient's risk of acquiring infections and increased their mortality. The article identifies key factors responsible for sleep disturbances in the ICU, such as higher noise levels, care activities, light exposure, etc.

Sample Description

For the sample used in the article, the authors set up a quasi-experimental design. The study was performed in two phases, with each phase lasting for three months. They started off with 60 patients in an ICU in Taipei, Taiwan. But only 55 patients actually were able to complete the study. The patients included in the study met a series of criteria, such as being 18 years or older, have undergone surgeries. Patients with pre-existing sleeping problems were excluded from the study. There was a total of 28 patients in the experimental group and another 27 patients in the control group.

Data Collection

Data collection was performed using two experienced nurses, using questionnaires developed for the study. The sleep quality of the participants of the study was recorded on a zero to ten-point scale, with 10 assigned to indicate the best sleep quality.

Data Analysis:

This article review would like to highlight the independent samples t-test uses to judge sleep quality at ICU for experimental and comparison groups.

For Experimental group:

Mean sleep quality = 6.82
SD = 1.36
For comparison group:
Mean sleep quality = 5.74
SD = 2.06
t-statistic of independent samples t-test = -2.28
p-value = 0.027 < 0.05.
Thus, the p-value is less than the significance level of 5%, and we conclude that in the ICU, patients that were in the experimental team slept better compared to those in the control team.
Pooled SD calculations:
Pooled SD calculations
SDpooled= SQRT((1.362 + 2.062)/2) = SQRT(6.0932/2) = SQRT(3.0466) = 1.7454
Effect Size (Cohen's D) calculations
Effect Size (Cohen's D) calculations
Cohen’s D = |5.74 – 6.82|/1.7454 = 0.618